For example, if you need life insurance because your new job doesn't offer and life insurance benefits for the first 90 days or 6 months?
Yes, there are short term life insurance plans available.
The shortest term may be one year. An annual renewable term life insurance policy would offer you the lowest rates, and the option of renewing your term life policy for an additional year at expiration, but the rate increases each year.
But, this type of life insurance policy could accomplish your goal of providing you with life insurance during the 3 month period you don;t have life insurance benefits from your new job.