If your goal is only to provide protection for the next few years, then term is the product. If she's NEVER going to be in better financial shape, and YOU are never going to be in better financial shape, either, then you probably want whole life.
Your mother's debt is not inheritable. So you don't have to worry about anything except funeral costs.
Also, your mother may have other assets that could be used to pay off her debt, and final expenses.
The other thing you have to ask yourself, is, how much life insurance on your mother can you afford. For a woman who is older with a medical condition, you may have to pay a high premium, or consider a "guaranteed issue" life insurance policy where the person has to live at least two full years after you take out the insurance, before they pay the death benefit. Here's how you can learn more about guaranteed acceptance life insurance coverage.